صيانة الحاسوب حسب برنامج A+

PC Installation, Configuration and Upgrading

 

 

القسم الاول

القسم الثاني

القسم الثالث

القسم الرابع

القسم الخامس

القسم السادس

 

 

Part6

Motherboards

اللوحات الام

Motherboards are the foundation for every PC. You should be very familiar with system board architecture and be able to recognize most components. Components to be able to identify include:

الاقسام التي يجب معرفتها في اللوحات الام:

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CPU

المعالج

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Real-time Clock and CMOS battery

البطارية

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BIOS chip

رقاقة البيوس

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Switch connectors

مفاتيح التوصيل

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Cache

الكاش

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IDE and floppy connectors

توصيلات القرص الصلب

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All expansion slots and types

مسارات الاضافة

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Memory banks and types

مسارات الذاكرة

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Power connectors

توصيلات مزود الكهرباء

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All integrated ports, including video (AGP)

المنافذ ومسار الشاشة

Terminology

مصطلحات

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System Chipset: the logic circuits for system functions like caching and interrupting. The chipset will affect the processor type, speed and multitasking, the amount of RAM and L2 cache supported, and power management.

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Controller Chips: Keyboard and PS/2 mouse controllers, I/O port controllers, EIDE and floppy drive controllers, and any other built-in interfaces (like sound, network)

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Clock: Handles multiple speeds with the clock multiplier

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I/O Ports: usually 2 serial, 1 parallel, 2 USB, 2 PS/2 (keybd, mouse), 2 internal EIDE, 1 internal floppy port

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Memory Slots: SIMM or DIMM, or both

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Level 2 Cache: usually a DIP chip or COASt (Cache on a stick), a dedicated high-speed backside bus (DIB – Dual Independent Bus) architecture.

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Form Factors: the shape and physical size of the system board: AT, baby AT, ATX, mini ATX, LPX, and mini-LPX, NLX.

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Bus: buses are a common medium for the transfer of data from one location, device, or component to another.

 

PCTechGuide Motherboards (great graphics)

Hardware Central’s Tutorial

Buses:

انواع المسارات

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Processor Bus

مسار المعالج

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Memory Bus

مسار الذاكرة

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Cache Bus

مسار الكاش

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I/O Bus

مسار للمداخل والمخارج

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Expansion Bus

المسار الموصل بين بطاقات الشاشة مثلا والمعالج

Bus Speeds

سرعة المسار

Device

Clock

Speed, e.g.

CPU

System clock x 4

266 MHz

L2 Cache

System clock x 2

133 MHz

System Memory



66 MHz

PCI bus

System clock x 2

33 MHz

ISA bus

PCI bus x 4

8.3 MHz

 

See also:

A Guide to the PC Bus Ride

Printers

الطابعات

Types

انواعها

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Dot Matrix

نقطية

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Inkjet

نافثة الحبر

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Laser (and LED)

ليزر

Dot Matrix

النقطية

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Also called Impact printers (parts actually impact the paper)

مؤثرة

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Fires pins (or print wires) at an ink ribbon, which contacts the paper and leaves a mark

يوجد ابر على الراس يطبع على كربونة حبر

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The print head, the assembly which contains the pins, moves left to right across the paper, line by line, creating letters out of the circular dots of ink that have impacted he paper.

يتحرك الراس مع الابر يسارا ويمينا ليشكّل لاخرف وارسوم المطلوبة  (عدد من النقاط)

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Coils of wires called solenoids are energized, thus creating an electromagnet, and cause the pins to shoot forward and strike the ribbon.

يوجد ملفات تولد مجال مغناطيسي  تؤدي الى تحريك الراس

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Print quality is measured in "pins", as in 9-pin, 24-pin, 48-pin printers: number of pins in the print head.

جودة الطباعة تقاس بعدد الابر

كلما كان العدد اكبر كلما كان اوضح

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The quality of print is at best NLQ, Near Letter Quality.

افضل جودة للطباعة على

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The speed of the printer is measured in cps, characters per second.

سرعة الطباعة تقاس بال سي بي اس

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The paper most often used with dot matrix is continuous, tractor-fed paper with perforated strips on the sides.

الورق المستخدم يكون متصل مع بعضه

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This printer uses pin feeders and tractor feeders with this paper to prevent skewing. The roller (or platen) applies pressure (friction) when you use plain paper to keep the paper from slipping. If you are using multiple-copy paper, you can adjust the platen gap to the thickness of the paper.

يمكنك التحكم بالعرض وسمك الورق

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Dot matrix printers are rather expensive to purchase now because they serve the niche multiple-copy stationary market, and so many companies want old ones fixed.

تعتبر سعرها غالي نسبيا

Inkjet Printers

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Inkjet printers use liquid ink-filled cartridges that force out and spray ink at the page through tiny holes called nozzles.

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The printer sprays ink at the page through pressure and electricity. Normally, the pressure inside the ink cartridge (in the ink reservoir) is a bit less than pressure outside. When the deflection plates are electrically charged, ink is forced out.

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Inkjet printers have two kinds of print heads that move back and forth in perfect synchronization with the spray of ink. HPs have thermal-shock print heads, which have a heating element around each nozzle that, when heated, causes the ink to expand. Epson printers have piezoelectric (electrostatic) print heads that, when charged, changes the size and shape of the nozzle, and acts like a pump.

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Inkjet printers can use plain paper and inkjet specific paper (for higher print quality).

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Print quality is measured in dpi, dots per inch.

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Print speed is measured in ppm, pages per minute.

Laser Printers

The majority of businesses (including BrainBuzz here) use laser printers for demanding printing needs (speed, quantity, quality).

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Laser printers print one whole page at a time, and require RAM (more memory) to operate.

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Print quality is measured as dpi

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When the printer receives the print data for a page, it breaks the data into single-dot strips called rasters (this is called rasterizing, amazingly enough).

 

The Laser Printing Process:

 

  1. Electrostatic Charging (Conditioning)
  2. Imaging (Writing or Exposing)
  3. Developing
  4. Transferring
  5. Fusing
  6. Cleaning

 

See also:

How Printers Work

PCTechGuide’s Laser Printers (excellent graphics)

Printer Connections and Configurations

 

To install a printer in Windows 9x/NT/2000, go to Setting => Printers => Add Printer and walk through the Print Wizard.

Connections

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Parallel (local)

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Serial (local)

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Network

 

More resources:

How to share a local printer

Troubleshooting Printers

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Printer not working: switched on, plugged in, online, check cables

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Paper jam: cheap paper, wrong type, stored improperly, loaded improperly

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Output corruption: printer driver, check setup

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Poor quality: toner/ribbon low, cheap/wrong paper

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Laser memory errors: not enough RAM

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Blank pages: OPC drum, corona wire improperly seated.

 

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Last modified: 10/07/ 2004